Ireland

Jamie + Ireland: Queen Maeve’s Cairn and Carrowmore Tombs

Queen Maeve’s Cairn

So far my stay in Ireland has been blanketed in mist, gorgeous views obstructed (Cliffs of Moher), and my frustration was at peak by the time I reached Queen Maeve’s grave. It sits at the top of Knocknarea, a 1,000 foot high hill in the county of Sligo. The hill is believed to contain a Neolithic passage tomb built in 3,000 BC. 

Queen Maeve's Cairn, Ireland

I sprinted to the top of the hill, shouting out loud to the sheep and the cows, “Ireland, why are you hiding? Reveal yourself!” I only stopped to laugh and catch my breath. There were other visitors on the path, and I walked a few loops around the cairn at the top. 

Queen Maeve's Cairn, Ireland

A cairn is a heap of stones piled as a memorial or a landmark. Queen Maeve’s Cairn is 180 feet wide and 33 feet tall. The rest of the group made their way to the top, each of us lost in the fog and exploring our own paths until we wandered to the same place. We found a good flat rock to sit on for a moment and created an impromptu ritual together. It’s very bad luck to take a rock from a cairn, but it’s good luck to carry one up and add it to the pile!

We all walked down from the hill together, singing pagan songs. 

We all come from the goddess, and to her we shall return

Like a drop of rain, flowing to the ocean

Two of the women showed us a precious spring they had discovered. As we splashed our hands and sang, the fog started to lift! We had a clear view of the beauty that surrounded us. Like a snow globe settling down after a rough shake. Finally I could see a bit clearer!

The walk from Queen Maeve's Cairn, Ireland

Carrowmore Megalithic Cemetery

Our next adventure was a tour of Carrowmore Megalithic Cemetery. We picnicked by a small food truck serving tea and coffee. The Carrowmore passage tombs were built during the Neolithic era, approximately 3,000 BC. There are thirty surviving tombs, making the site the heart of an ancient ritual landscape.

The tour of Carrowmore was through grassy fields and I kicked off my shoes for most of it. Knocknarea and Queen Maeve’s Cairn loomed in the distance to the west. It was exciting to see how far we had climbed that morning! Our guide pointed out all of the major landscapes around the area. The sky was crystal clear.

The view of Knocknarea from Carrowmore in Sligo Ireland

We were led into the chamber of Listoghil, which is lined with stones, and I was tiptoeing through in my bare feet tenderly. The chamber held a tomb or what looked similar to an altar table. There was evidence of bones found below the structure. Most of the burials at Carrowmore were cremated human remains, but it was clear that burning the dead involved a complex sequence of treatments, including excarnation and reburial. Flesh was separated from bone like the separation of the soul from the body. The bones were often laid to rest in a common ancestral grave after the process was complete and the soul had crossed over. 

Exhibit at Carrowmore in Sligo, Ireland

These types of megalithic monuments, known as passage graves, are associated with the goddess Cailleach, who is the builder of chambered cairns. The tombs remained a major focal point on the landscape long after they were originally built. They were repurposed by the people of the Bronze Age and Iron Age.

After a day of exploring, we had dinner at a gastropub in Sligo and then we visited W.B. Yeats’ grave, where Benbulben rises in the background.

William Butler Yeats and Benbulben

Considered one of the greatest poets of the 21st century, Yeats belonged to the Prostestant, Anglo-Irish minority that controlled the economic, political, and cultural life of Ireland at the end of the 17th century. He was born on June 13th, 1865. Although he lived in London in his childhood years, he staunchly identified as Irish. His poems and plays feature Irish legends and heroes. His poetry was published for the first time in the Dublin University Review in 1885, and around this time his interest in occultism began. 

For 32 years he was an active member of the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn, a secret society devoted to the study and practice of the occult, metaphysics, and paranormal activities. He and his wife practiced hundreds of hours of automatic writing. From their notes, they formulated theories and identified patterns about life and history. 

Yeats was president of the Irish National Theatre Society, and also involved in the management of the abbey Theatre Company. He was also a world-renowned artist of impressive stature, having received the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1923. He passed away on January 28th, 1939. Learn more about Yeats here.

Y.B. Yeats' grave in St. Columbia's Churchyard, Ireland

On his grave reads the lines:

Cast a cold Eye

On Life, on Death

Horsemen pass by!

This is the last stanza of his work, “Under the Benbulben,” and means not to take life too seriously! It suggests that when this was written in his later years, Yeats knew where he was going to be buried. He wasn’t worried about life and death, but about the legacy he was leaving behind in Ireland. Benbulben mountain is visible from the cemetery at St. Columbia’s Churchyard.

Benbulben, Sligo, Ireland

Also known as “Table Mountain,” Benbulben looms over the road from Sligo to Donegal like a mythological beast. It’s part of the Dartry Mountains, is made of limestone and shale, formed at a time when glaciers covered the earth. Fairies are through to be visible here!

Sources:

Heritage Ireland

Fr. Michael O’Flanagan History & Heritage Centre

Sligo Walks

The Poetry Foundation

Ireland

Jamie + Ireland: Tales from Oweynagat Cave

Oweynagat Cave is one of the archeological sites at Rathcroghan – check out my earlier blog about the rest of the day at this magical place – Rathcroghan, Queen Maeve, and the Cattle Raid of Cooley.

Our tour guide, Mike, explained a number of mythological tales about the site. It’s considered to be where Samhain (Halloween) originated! It’s known as the gate to hell, as the cave of the cats, and as the home of the Mórrígan. 

Some parts of Rathcroghan are on private property, and there are active farms all around the sites. There was a friendly dog greeting our group as we approached the cave. He enjoyed all of the belly rubs while we listened to Mike’s tales. And we lovingly named him, “the Guardian Dog to the Gates of Hell.”

Tour guide, Mike McCarthy
The Guardian Dog to Gates of Hell

Oweynagat cave is made of two parts, a man made underground passage, and a natural limestone rift. I’ve been to caves in India and Iceland, but nothing quite like this! It looked like a modest little hole in the ground, at the corner of a field. I could not believe a dozen people were going to fit down there! You enter through a very low, narrow entrance marked with stones. This method of stacking stones without mortar was common in the Early Medieval period. 

Entrance to Oweynagat cave 2022

Mike handed out flashlights and prepared us for going into the cave. It was a tight squeeze through the entryway, scooting on your butt, or on hands and knees a bit. Be prepared to encounter a good deal of mud! Under the entryway, the passage to the right collapsed some time ago. But if you go to the left, you enter a cavern large enough to stand up and move around.

Video clip from inside the cave 2022

We turned off the flashlights and stood in silence for a moment. The air and the energy were deep, dark, and cold. But in a way, it felt like a healing or a rebirth as we climbed back out into the daylight. After Mike’s thorough and knowledgeable tour, he took his leave, and we had ourselves a little grounding ceremony in the field before leaving the site.

Grounding and mud

Oweynagat and Fráoch, son of Maeve

There is an ogham inscription on one of the back of one of the entrance stones; I didn’t get a good look until I was on my way out. Ogham, known as the ‘Celtic Tree Alphabet,’ dates back centuries and has several theories about its origins. Ogham can be dated back to the 4th-8th centuries AD and is based on the Latin alphabet. It says, “VRAICCI MAQI MEDVVI,” and is translated as, “[the stone] of Fráoch, son of Medb.” 

Ogham inscription in the cave 2022

If the Medb here refers to Queen Maeve, who we learned about earlier (revisit the last blog), then it is the earliest written reference to her in Ireland. Fráoch could be the literary figure, Fráoch mac Fidag Foltrude who played a large part in the Cattle Raid of Cooley.

In the initial part of the tale, he is severely wounded by a device of Alill and Maeve. To atone for their actions, they make him a bath of fresh bacon and beef. While he’s enjoying his meaty bath, some otherworldly women claim him, and take him away into Oweynagat. When he returned, he was completely healed.

Ireland’s Gate to Hell and the birthplace of Samhain (Halloween)

The concept of Oweynagat as a cave to hell is a common theme in tales throughout time. It’s also considered the birthplace of Samhain (Halloween)! Samhain marks the end of the harvest season and the coming of Winter. On this day, the portal to the otherworld lies open! Read more on my blog: Secrets of Samhain.

Oweynagat cave is an entrance to the otherworld, not to be confused with the underworld. Death is not required to access the otherworld. It is a parallel dimension, said to be the dwelling place of the Tuatha Dé Danann, the semi-divine beings of Ireland who were defeated by the Milesians. 

On the feast of Samhain, Connacht warrior Nera witnessed an otherworldly army emerge from Oweynagat, and destroy Maeve’s palace at Rathcroghan. Having found the entrance, he went into the otherworld himself. He is allowed to stay, and even takes a wife. But he has a vision of destruction that will happen on the following Samhain, and he returns to warn Maeve and Alill. He returns through the cave at the Winter festival of Samhain, but he brings with him the fruits of Summer from the otherworld: wild garlic, primrose, and golden fern. This is proof of where he had been. 

The Cave of the Cats

Yet another tale about Oweynagat cave originates from the tale of Bricriu’s Feast, from as early as the 8th century. The Táin, Bricriu Nemhthenga (of the wicked tongue), is similar to the Norse God Loki. He is a troublemaker. He throws a great feast and requires all the warriors of Ulster to attend. He convinces three of the great champions to claim the best piece of meat at the feast. Mayhem ensues as they compete to prove who is worthiest. 

As a test, three wild cats are released from the cave and the warriors are forced to endure a night at the cave, in their presence. Only one champion returned victorious. 

Photo by Akin Cakiner on Unsplash

Mórrígan’s Dwelling Place

Oweynagat is the dwelling place of the Mórrígan, the Great Queen, or Phantom Queen. She is a shapeshifter, most commonly associated with the hooded crow. She sometimes appears as the “Washer at the Ford, washing the blood stained garments and weapons of warriors, and prophesying their deaths. She does not usually partake in battle herself, but she’s known for invoking it with her magic and her presence. 

Photo by Sergio Ibannez on Unsplash

Mórrígan plays a role in the Cattle Raid of Cooley. She approaches Cú Chulainn, who was the chosen warrior fighting for the Ulster side (see previous blog). She appears to him as a beautiful young maiden, but he rejects her, saying he has no time for love. She furiously vanishes. Later, she attacks him three times while he is in combat at the ford. Once as a black eel, once as gray wolf, and finally as a white, hornless, red-eared heifer. She vows to be there at his death. 

I grabbed a copy of Rathcroghan: The Guidebook, co authored by my tour guide; all of the proceeds support the visitors center (you can order one online here). Plan a visit to Rathcroghan, or check out their virtual tour here.

Source: Curley, Daniel, and Mike McCarthy. Rathcroghan: The Guidebook. Tulsk Action Group CLG, 2018. 

Ireland

Jamie + Ireland: Rathcroghan, Queen Maeve, and the Cattle Raid of Cooley

Located in county Roscommon, Rathcroghan is part of a complex of 240 archaeological sites from the Neolithic period (4,000BC) through to the late Medieval period (1600AD). It is remembered as one of the great ceremonial gathering places in Ireland. These ceremonies took place at key points during the year, the changing of the seasons. It was time for judgements to be passed, for kings to be inaugurated, for feasts and festivities.

Rothcroghan aerial view Ireland

History of Rathcroghan in Ireland

The landscape lies on an elevated limestone plateau, resulting in clear and fertile land. Early farming communities settled here. They held close links with their ancestors and built these monuments to develop a stronger relationship with the land. At a time when societies were moving away from nomadic life, and towards farming and ritual monument construction, Rathcrogan was a place of great importance. 

In the late Medieval period, it is recorded as one of the main burial places in Ireland. There are 28 identifiable burial sites still visible on the land today. The mounds are built to be visible from a far distance. Ruling classes treated their dead with great care. They placed the remains of their ancestors in these locations as a sign of power and authority over the region.

historic rathcroghen in ireland

On the tour, we climbed to the top of Rathcrogen Mound, believed to be a site where royal kings were inaugurated. It was where they would have bled cattle or performed rituals for a good harvest.

It was a powerful place, and after listening to our knowledgeable and enthusiastic tour guide, Mike share some amazing facts, we all took a moment to lie in the grass and absorb the energy. I was very emotional. A sense of sadness and beauty lay deep under the surface. My paternal ancestors immigrated from the county of Roscommon, and while I have no proof (yet) that they were connected to this place, but it felt significant.

Jamie in the meadow

Queen Maeve and the Cattle Raid of Cooley

In early tales, Rathcroghan was the home of the Connacht, the ruling dynasty in the territory from the fifth century, and included the palace of the infamous Iron Age Warrior Queen, Maeve (Medb). It is a main site in the Ulster Cycle of Tales, particularly the national epic, Táin Bó Cúailnge, the Cattle Raid of Cooley. 

tain trail, ireland

Maeve embodies all aspects from royal and sacred to mythological and divine. Her name stems from the same origins as the word “mead,” an alcoholic honey drink. Her name can be translated into “she who intoxicates.” Her father was the high king of Ireland, and she was one of his six daughters.

Queen Maeve mural at Rathcroghan

She was known for having many husbands and partners. Her first husband was Conchobar mac Nessa, and she left him against his will. After the failure of that marriage, her father bestowed her the title of Queen, and the authority to bestow kingship.

Her next three husbands were all kings of Connacht. One of these was Alill, and one night after making love, they got into a heated argument over who was wealthier. The next day they laid out all of their riches and found that they were completely even, except for one thing. Alill had a great white horned bull that was very unique.

Finnbennach, the Connacht bull

Not to be outdone, Maeve sends her messenger to find an equal or greater bull in Ireland, and he locates a great brown bull that is enormous in size. It belongs to Daire mac Fiachna in the province of Ulster, the territory of Cuailnge. She sends her messengers to offer Daire some land, a grand chariot, and a night with her, in exchange for his great brown bull. He is so excited by the offer, he throws her messengers a feast. 

But then they start boasting about how the offer was just a formality. Their queen is so powerful, she would have just taken the bull by force. Word gets back to Daire, and he refuses the offer and sends them packing. So naturally Queen Maeve raids Ulster, and a heated battle ensues.

They come to a deadlock at the ford, and in an effort to bring things to an end, Maeve and the man agree to send one warrior each to fight. Daire and the county of Ulster send their greatest champion, Cú Chulainn, who posses a magic spear and is not affected by the curse that disables the other warriors of Ulster. Maeve sends Ferdiad, who is Cú Chulainn’s best friend, and he needs a bit of convincing to fight.

During the battle, Maeve breaks the terms of her deal and attempts to attack from behind. Cú Chulainn defeats Ferdiad, and the tides start to turn against Maeve. She has her secret agents smuggle the bull out and deliver it to her home in Connacht. 

The bull is put in the pasture with Alill’s great white bull, and they fight for a day and a night, ultimately killing one another. There are many more layers to this story! I hope this inspires you to learn more about Rathcroghan and Queen Maeve, one of the most legendary figures in Irish mythology. 

I grabbed a copy of Rathcroghan The Guidebook, co authored by my tour guide; all of the proceeds support the visitors center (you can order one online here). If you ever plan to visit Rathcroghan, have some lunch at the Tain Cafe and check out the gift shop. I also highly recommend walking on the mounds barefoot and laying in the grass (no ticks in Ireland). Be sure to take the tour! Ask to go inside of Owenganat Cave, which will be the subject of the next blog!

Source: Curley, Daniel, and Mike McCarthy. Rathcroghan: The Guidebook. Tulsk Action Group CLG, 2018. 

Ireland

Jamie + Ireland: Cliffs of Moher and Carrick on Shannon

Fresh off a red eye flight from Boston at 5:30am, I was off to the Cliffs of Moher with two of my new friends/traveling comrades, and a cheerful local driver. We had some time to kill before we met up with the rest of our tour group, and I thought a private drive to the cliffs would be a good way to jump start the day after the flight. It was a bit of hike to the west coast of County Claire, and the winding country roads were not easy on our stomachs, but we took it all in stride.

The Cliffs of Moher

Walking out to the cliffs, there was a thick blanket of fog hiding the view! I could not see a damn thing. Came all this way, I grumbled, and won’t be seeing the cliffs. Ireland, why are you hiding from me?

One of my friends made a fabulous suggestion. Well, we can’t see the cliffs, but we have other senses don’t we? Okay, well I can:

  • Hear: puffin calls
  • Smell: ocean air
  • Taste: salt
  • Feel: dewy mist

Walking outside did us a lot of good, and we wandered around O’Brien’s tower. Cornelius O’Brien built a tower on the cliffs in 1835 to promote tourism and benefit the local economy. We lovingly nicknamed this “Coffee Cup Castle.”

There is evidence of fishing, quarrying, and foraging dating back to the 1st century BC. Tourism became a main focus in the 16th century and grew slowly at first, but steadily over the years. Today, not only are the Cliffs of Moher the second most popular tourist destination in Ireland, they are an important place for wildlife observation.

If you’re interested in visiting the Cliffs of Moher, I would recommend going later in the morning, when the shops are open and the fog has burned off a bit. I’m sure it’s worth the trip (but I wouldn’t know! lol).

Carrick on Shannon

With a bit of breakfast and a cuppa on the road, we made our way to an important marina capital in Ireland: Carrick on Shannon, which lies on the River Shannon. Our tour group was meeting at an Airbnb here, and the first half of the trip felt as though it had officially begun! The evening was spent exploring, dining, and meeting new friends. Check out my photos below!

Cool things to do Carrick on Shannon:

  • Costello Chapel
    • The second smallest chapel in the world
    • Built by Edward Costello in memory of his wife Mary Josephine, who died at 48 years young
    • He missed her so much, he had her embalmed and enshrined. 14 years later, he was buried next to her for eternity
  • St. Mary’s Catholic Church
    • Neo-Gothic Style, built in 1879
  • Tegi’s Tearoom
    • A hidden gem serving up some serious vintage vibes
  • Scenic walks along the River Shannon
  • Great shopping and pubs
    • Most shops and restaurants are generally open from 10:30-8:00
    • The pubs stay open late and offer live trad music regularly
Astrology and Tarot, Holidays

Modern magic in the Autumn Equinox: how to celebrate Mabon

Mabon & the Autumn Equinox

Mabon is a Sabbat that celebrates the autumn equinox, which falls around September 21st each year. The name Mabon is a modern terminology set in the 1970s by Aiden Kelly, and influential figure in the Neopagan religion of Wicca. Before that, festivals during this time of year were usually referred to as the Autumnal Equinox. Although there is no proven connection between Mabon and the Autumnal Equinox, Kelly believed that the Celts celebrated at this time. 

In Stonehenge, astronomer Sir Fred Hoyle determined a series of holes called Aubrey Holes that lined up with specific eclipses, allowing light to show through at exactly the moment of the equinox. 

Kelly chose the name Mabon from the celtic tale of Mabon, an infant child stolen away from his mother and imprisoned. The mythic hero Culwch must seek out Mabon to help him hunt down a wild boar that was previously a king in order to win the hand of Olwen in marriage. The myth is indicative of the separation of the youthful gof from his mother, the great goddess, and the resulting deloation of the land, which can only be restored once he is restored. 

The festival of the Eleusinian Mysteries was a sacred harvest held in Greece, once every four years in Eleusis and lasted nine or ten dats. It started at the full moon and included a procession hailing Demeter, the mother of Persephone. Like Mabon, Persephone was also stolen from her mother and imprisoned.

Connecting with the Season

Imagine the way ancestors would have lived during this time of year. Mostly farmers, they are likely working on the second harvest of the year, squash, pumpkin, root vegetables. They are well fed, they are enjoying the fruits of their labor, and preparing for the winter ahead. They are giving thanks and showing gratitude for food, for animals, and for surviving another year. It’s a time to make decisions about what to consume, what to store, and what to leave to decay in the fields.

No two Mabon feasts would look the same, but they usually included a shared meal, acknowledgement of sacrifices made during the year for survival, and offerings for protection through the Winter.

Even as modern people, we breathe the same air that our ancestors held in their lungs. We touch the same earth and water that they touched. 

The Autumn Equinox falls when the sun rises in Libra, the sign that represents level-headed balance and careful judgement. An appropriate frame of mind when preparing for a harsher season. Mabon is both celebratory and somber. It is a busy time of year, and people are tired. With themes of gratitude, death, grief, and looming winter, it is time to acknowledge mixed feelings and seek inner balance. 

How can you celebrate the Autumn Equinox?

Harvest what you have grown in the last year and take an honest look at what you need to let go. You don’t have to cut any chords right away, make it a gentle separation from now until Samhain or Yule.

Here are some light hearted ways to celebrate Mabon in the modern world.

  • Plant bulbs for the Spring
  • Organize your planner for the rest of the year, buy one for next year
  • Improve your negotiation skills with a class or a ted talk {find one, link it}
  • Can, jam, freeze, pickle, or dry goodies from your garden or a local farm
  • Go for a long walk or hike
  • Watch the sunset or the sunrise
  • Have a full harvest moon ritual
  • Go apple picking
  • Have a bonfire
  • Go out dancing or take a dance class
  • Make corn dollies or wreaths
  • Go horseback riding
  • Have a “goodbye garden” parade – great for kids
  • Have a tarot reading

If you like learning about seasonal magic, sign up for my newsletter! Follow me on InsightTimer where I give regular, free talks about mindfulness and seasonal magic.

Mabon Tarot Spread

  1. As the nights get colder, what will the frost wilt and wither?
  2. What energetic cords need to be pruned during the Fall so that I can blossom in Spring?
  3. With darker nights approaching, how can I rake in my energy to hold light for myself and others during Winter?
  4. What dreams have ripened and need to be celebrated with a grateful heart?

Autumn Blessing

At Autumn Equinox, I name this place

A sacred time and sacred space.

Within it I now give my thanks,

With protection granted by Goddess grace!

The north grants ground to walk upon.

The east grants winds that gyrate.

The south grants fire so we live on.

The west grants fluids to sate us.

~Llewellyn’s Sabbat Essentials for Mabon